Charisma measures a character’s charm and eloquence, their force of personality, their self-confidence, and their ability to interact with other creatures. Characters with a high score are charming, well-liked, and are often natural leaders. These characters are able to make friends, talk their way out of trouble, negotiate, and otherwise get by on talk.
Deception, Intimidation, Performance, and Persuasion are all tied to Charisma.
Deception measures your ability to mislead other creatures, either verbally or otherwise. At its simplest, you might use a Charisma (Deception) check to tell a lie, but you might also use Deception to confuse, distract, or otherwise mislead other creatures.
When you attempt to decieve another creature, you make a Charisma (Deception) check against their Passive Insight (10 + your Insight modifier). If you meet or beat their Passive Insight, you succeed.
Intimidation measures your ability to coerce, cajole, or bully other creatures using overt threats, hostile actions, and physical violence. Intimidation is often used to scare off thugs, to coerce uncooperative prisoners into revealing information, or to force to someone to do something for you or to give you something which they otherwise wouldn’t.
Performance measures your ability to delight and entertain an audience by any number of means, whether by singing, dancing, acting, or playing an instrument. The precise nature of the performance isn’t specified by the skill, and is left up to the player and the DM to decide.
Persuasion measures your ability to peacefully and politely influence other creatures. This often involves good manners, tact, and observance of social graces. Persuasion is often used to negotiate or to diffuse hostile situations peacefully.