DnD 5e - Schools of Magic
Spells are categorized into 8 "schools" of magic. This doesn't affect the function of the spells, but it helps to group spells with similar effects, and certain spellcasters have class features related to spell schools like the Eldritch Knight, which can only learn abjuration and evocation spells.
Abjuration spells focus on spells that protect their subjects and spells which banish creatures.
Example spells include banishment, counterspell, dispel magic, and magic circle.
Conjuration spells produce objects or creatures out of thin air.
Example spells include cure wounds, fog cloud, conjure elemental, and teleport.
Divination spells allow the caster to percieves beyond what their normal senses allow, seeing far-off places, seeing invisible creatures, or even predicting the future.
Example spells include contact other plane, detect magic, and see invisibility.
Enchantments spells entrance, beguile, and even dominate the minds of other creatures.
Example spells include beast friendship, dominate monster, and hold person.
Evocation spells allow the caster to control and manipulate elemental energies: cold, fire, thunder, lightning, avid, and even raw magical force.
Example spells include fireball, forcecage, and magic missile.
Illusions spells dazzle, confuse, and decieve their targets, often creating false images which not only look but sounds, smell, and even feel totally real.
Example spells include invisibility, mirage arcane, and silent image
Necromancy spells manipulate life, death, and undeath.
Example spells include animate dead, chill touch, and resurrection.
Transmutation spells modify energy or matter, changing on thing into another.
Example spells include animate objects, control weather, and polymorph.